URLs or DOIs (9.34)
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) are used for items found on the free Web when no DOI is available. URLs are constantly changing, moving, or being deleted. Researchers should check each URL before submitting a paper to make sure it still links to the correct content. The URL is copied and pasted to the end of the reference, but no Retrieved from is necessary before pasting the URL. Do not put a period after the URL because it may be mistaken for part of the URL. URLs should be live if the reader is expected to be able to access the information online.
Maintain spacing and characters exactly for retrieval purposes. If off by one character, readers will not be able to retrieve the content.
Sleeter, C. E. (2011). The academic and social value of ethnic studies: A research review. National Education Association. http://www.nea.org/assets/docs/NBI-2010-3-value-of-ethnic-studies.pdf
A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a string of numbers and characters that allows a reader to locate content online using a persistent link. It is unique to each piece of information it is assigned. Whether in print or electronic, if a DOI is assigned, USE it in your citation. If a DOI is given, then no other retrieval information is needed. This is true for any publication on the Internet, in print, or in a database. Some DOIs may not have the https before them. They are only alphanumeric strings. Put them in a retrievable format by adding the prefix https://doi.org/. Place a DOI at the end of your citation in the following format: https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxxxx
Maintain spacing and characters exactly for retrieval purposes. If off by one character, readers will not be able to retrieve the article. Try it out here. Copy and paste the following DOI into a search engine to see where it leads.
Head, A. J., DeFrain, E., Fister, B., & MacMillan, M. (2019). Across the great divide: How today's college students engage with news. First Monday, 24(8). https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v24i8.10166